LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

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Over the past decade, the operation of 3GPP-based cellular networks in unlicensed spectrum has gone from being a perennial talking point to what is now a key element of mobile network densification strategies. Mobile operators across the globe are increasingly rolling out LTE RAN (Radio Access Network) infrastructure operating in unlicensed spectrum – primarily the globally harmonized 5 GHz band – to expand network capacity and deliver higher data rates, particularly in dense urban environments. These implementations are largely based on LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) technology which aggregates unlicensed channels with anchors in licensed spectrum to maintain seamless and reliable connectivity.

However, the practical applicability of unlicensed spectrum is not limited to the capacity enhancement of traditional mobile operator networks. Technical and regulatory initiatives such as MulteFire, CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) and sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) make it possible for enterprises, vertical industries, third-party neutral hosts and other new entrants to build and operate their own independent cellular networks solely in unlicensed spectrum without requiring an anchor carrier in licensed spectrum. Furthermore, in conjunction with the availability of new license-exempt frequencies such as the recently opened 6 GHz band from 5925 MHz to 7125 MHz, the introduction of 5G NR-U in 3GPP’s Release 16 specifications paves the way for 5G NR deployments in unlicensed spectrum for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation. Given 5G’s inherent support for reliability and time-sensitive networking, NR-U is particularly well suited to meet industrial IoT requirements for the automation and digitization of environments such as factories, warehouses, ports and mining sites.

Despite the economic slowdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, competition from non-3GPP wireless technologies and other challenges, SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR-ready RAN infrastructure operating in unlicensed spectrum will reach nearly $500 Million by the end of 2020. The market is further expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 40% between 2020 and 2023, eventually accounting for $1.3 Billion by 2023.

The “LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents a detailed assessment of the market for LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, key trends, future roadmap, business models, use cases, application scenarios, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also provides global and regional forecasts for unlicensed LTE and 5G NR RAN infrastructure from 2020 till 2030. The forecasts cover two air interface technologies, two modes of operation, two cell type categories, seven frequency band ranges, seven use cases and five regional markets.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Topics Covered
The report covers the following topics:
– Introduction to LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum
– Value chain and ecosystem structure
– Market drivers and challenges
– Enabling technologies and concepts including LTE-U, LAA/eLAA/FeLAA, 5G NR-U, MulteFire, CBRS and sXGP
– Key trends such as mobile network densification, neutral host small cells, private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries, and the availability of new unlicensed bands
– Future roadmap of LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum
– Business models, use cases and application scenarios
– Spectrum availability, allocation and usage across the global, regional and national domains
– Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
– Case studies of LTE and 5G NR-ready deployments in unlicensed spectrum
– Profiles and strategies of more than 280 ecosystem players
– Strategic recommendations for LTE and 5G NR equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers, enterprises and vertical industries
– Market analysis and forecasts from 2020 till 2030

Forecast Segmentation
Market forecasts for LTE and 5G NR-based RAN equipment operating in unlicensed spectrum are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Air Interface Technologies
– Unlicensed LTE
– 5G NR-U

Modes of Operation
– Standalone Operation
– LAA (Licensed Assisted Access)

Cell Types
– Indoor Small Cells
– Outdoor Small Cells

Frequency Bands
– Sub-1 GHz
– 1.9 GHz sXGP
– 2.4 GHz
– 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA
– 5 GHz
– 6 GHz
– Higher Frequencies

Use Cases
– Mobile Network Densification
FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)
– Cable Operators & New Entrants
– Neutral Hosts
– Private Cellular Networks
○ Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses
○ Vertical Industries

Regional Markets
– North America
– Asia Pacific
– Europe
– Middle East & Africa
– Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered
The report provides answers to the following key questions:
– How big is the opportunity for LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum?
– What trends, drivers and challenges are influencing its growth?
– What will the market size be in 2023, and at what rate will it grow?
– Which submarkets and regions will see the highest percentage of growth?
– What are the existing and candidate unlicensed spectrum bands for the operation of LTE and 5G NR, and what is the status of their adoption worldwide?
– What is the outlook for the recently opened 6 GHz greenfield spectrum and license-exempt bands in higher frequencies?
– What are the business models, use cases and application scenarios for LTE and 5G NR networks operating in unlicensed spectrum?
– How does the integration of unlicensed spectrum relieve capacity constraints faced by traditional mobile operators?
– What opportunities exist for cable operators, neutral hosts, niche service providers and other new entrants?
– How will unlicensed spectrum accelerate the uptake of private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries?
– How does standardization impact the deployment of LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum?
– What are the functional capabilities of 5G NR-U based on the 3GPP’s Release 16 specifications, and which NR-U feature enhancements are likely to be supported in Release 17?
– Do Wi-Fi and other non-3GPP technologies operating in unlicensed spectrum pose a threat to LTE and 5G NR?
– Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
– What strategies should LTE and 5G NR equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?

Key Findings
The report has the following key findings:
– Despite the economic slowdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, competition from non-3GPP wireless technologies and other challenges, SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR-ready RAN infrastructure operating in unlicensed spectrum will reach nearly $500 Million by the end of 2020. The market is further expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 40% between 2020 and 2023, eventually accounting for $1.3 Billion by 2023.
– As part of their network densification efforts, mobile operators across the globe are increasingly employing the use of LAA technology to aggregate licensed spectrum assets with unlicensed frequencies – primarily the globally harmonized 5 GHz band – in order to deliver higher data rates and alleviate capacity constraints across the most congested parts of their networks.
– With the possibility to leverage the 3.5 GHz CBRS band on a GAA (General Authorized Access) basis in the United States and the availability of Japan’s license-exempt 1.9 GHz sXGP band, independent cellular networks that can operate solely in unlicensed spectrum – without requiring an anchor carrier in licensed spectrum – are beginning to emerge as well. In addition, it is worth noting that a limited number of custom-built, standalone LTE networks operating in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands are operational in certain national markets, predominantly for industrial IoT applications.
– In the coming years, with the commercial maturity of 5G NR-U technology, we also anticipate to see 5G NR deployments in unlicensed spectrum for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation – using the 3.5 GHz CBRS, 5 GHz, 6 GHz and higher frequency bands up to 71 GHz.

Additional information

Date Published

Pages

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Geography Covered

Format

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Page Number
1 Chapter 1: Introduction 24
1.1 Executive Summary 24
1.2 Topics Covered 26
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 27
1.4 Key Questions Answered 29
1.5 Key Findings 31
1.6 Methodology 33
1.7 Target Audience 34
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 35
2 Chapter 2: An Overview of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 37
2.1 Spectrum: The Lifeblood of the Wireless Communications Industry 37
2.1.1 Traditional Exclusive-Use Licensed Spectrum 37
2.1.2 Unlicensed Spectrum 37
2.1.2.1 Dedicated License-Exempt Bands 38
2.1.2.2 Opportunistic Unlicensed Access 38
2.2 Why Utilize Unlicensed Spectrum for LTE & 5G NR Networks? 38
2.2.1 Alleviating Capacity Constraints on Mobile Operator Spectrum 38
2.2.2 New Business Models: Neutral Host, Enterprise & Private Cellular Networks 39
2.2.3 Resurgence of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Services 39
2.3 How Unlicensed Spectrum Differs From Traditional Licensed Frequencies 39
2.3.1 Exclusive vs. Shared Use 39
2.3.2 License Fees & Validity 40
2.3.3 Network Buildout & Service Obligations 40
2.3.4 LBT (Listen Before Talk) & Coexistence Mechanisms 40
2.3.5 Power Limits & Other Restrictions 40
2.4 The Value Chain of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 41
2.4.1 Chipset & Enabling Technology Specialists 41
2.4.2 Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 42
2.4.3 LTE & 5G NR Infrastructure Suppliers 42
2.4.4 Wireless Service Providers 42
2.4.4.1 Mobile Operators 42
2.4.4.2 Fixed-Line Service Providers 43
2.4.4.3 MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) 43
2.4.4.4 Towercos (Tower Companies) 43
2.4.4.5 Neutral Hosts 43
2.4.4.6 Private Network Operators 44
2.4.5 End Users 44
2.4.5.1 Consumers 44
2.4.5.2 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 44
2.4.6 Other Ecosystem Players 45
2.5 Market Drivers 45
2.5.1 Continued Growth of Mobile Data Traffic 45
2.5.2 New Revenue Streams: FWA, IoT & Vertical-Focused Services 46
2.5.3 Private & Neutral Host Network Deployments 47
2.5.4 Unlicensed Spectrum Availability 47
2.5.5 Lower Cost Network Equipment & Installation 47
2.5.6 Expanding Ecosystem of Compatible Devices 48
2.6 Market Barriers 48
2.6.1 Cell Site Deployment Challenges 48
2.6.2 Restricted Coverage Due to Transmit Power Limits 49
2.6.3 Interference & Congestion Concerns 49
2.6.4 Resistance From Other Spectrum Users 49
2.6.5 Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies 50
2.6.6 Economic & Pandemic-Related Factors 50
3 Chapter 3: Enabling Technologies & Concepts 51
3.1 LTE-U 51
3.1.1 Channel Selection 51
3.1.2 CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) 52
3.1.3 Opportunistic On-Off Switching 52
3.2 LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) 52
3.2.1 LBT (Listen Before Talk): Category 4 & Category 2 LBT 53
3.2.2 FS3 (Frame Structure Type 3) for Unlicensed Carriers 53
3.2.3 Other LAA Design & Operational Aspects 54
3.3 eLAA (Enhanced LAA) 54
3.4 FeLAA (Further Enhanced LAA) 54
3.5 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) 55
3.5.1 Modes of Operation 55
3.5.1.1 Anchored NR-U 55
3.5.1.2 Standalone NR-U 56
3.5.2 LBT-Based Channel Access 57
3.5.3 Air Interface Refinements for NR-U 57
3.5.4 Time-Synchronized NR-U & Future Developments 57
3.6 MulteFire 58
3.6.1 Supported Unlicensed Bands 58
3.6.2 Building on 3GPP-Specified LAA & eLAA Functionality 58
3.6.3 Modifications for Standalone Operation Without Licensed Anchor 59
3.6.4 Neutral Host Access, Cellular IoT Optimizations & Additional Capabilities 59
3.7 Japan’s sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) 59
3.7.1 License-Exempt Operation of 1.9 GHz Private LTE Networks 60
3.7.2 LBT for Coexistence With PHS & Other sXGP Networks 60
3.7.3 Possible Use of 1.9 GHz as an Anchor Band for Local 5G Networks 60
3.8 United States’ CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) 60
3.8.1 Dynamic Three-Tiered Sharing of the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 61
3.8.2 Tiers of Authorization 61
3.8.2.1 Tier 1 – Incumbent Access 62
3.8.2.2 Tier 2 – PALs (Priority Access Licenses) 62
3.8.2.3 Tier 3 – GAA (General Authorized Access) 63
3.9 TVWS (TV White Spaces) 63
3.9.1 Database-Assisted Access to Unoccupied TV Channels 63
3.9.2 Possible Implementation Using 3GPP RAN Technologies 64
3.10 Integration & Aggregation With Unlicensed Non-3GPP Networks 64
3.10.1 Core Network-Centric Integration 64
3.10.1.1 System-Level WLAN Offload in LTE 64
3.10.1.2 Interworking With Non-3GPP Access Networks in 5G 65
3.10.2 RAN Centric Offload & Link Aggregation 65
3.10.2.1 RALWI (RAN Assisted LTE-WLAN Interworking) 65
3.10.2.2 RCLWI (RAN Controlled LTE-WLAN Interworking) 66
3.10.2.3 LWA (LTE-WLAN Aggregation) 66
3.10.2.4 eLWA (Enhanced LWA) 66
3.10.2.5 LWIP (LTE-WLAN Radio Level Integration With IPsec Tunnel) 66
3.10.2.6 eLWIP (Enhanced LWIP) 67
3.10.3 Multipath Protocols 67
3.10.3.1 MPTCP (Multipath TCP) 67
3.10.3.2 MPQUIC (Multipath Quick UDP Internet Connections) 68
3.10.4 Other Protocols & Techniques 69
4 Chapter 4: Business Models, Use Cases & Applications 71
4.1 Business Models & Use Cases 71
4.1.1 Service Provider Networks 71
4.1.1.1 Mobile Network Densification & Build-Outs 71
4.1.1.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Broadband 72
4.1.1.3 Mobile Networks for Cable Operators & New Entrants 73
4.1.2 Neutral Host Networks 73
4.1.2.1 Indoor Spaces 74
4.1.2.2 Large Public Venues 74
4.1.2.3 Transport Hubs & Corridors 75
4.1.2.4 High-Density Urban Settings 75
4.1.2.5 Remote and Rural Coverage 75
4.1.3 Private Cellular Networks 76
4.1.3.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 76
4.1.3.2 Vertical Industries 77
4.1.3.2.1 Manufacturing 77
4.1.3.2.2 Transportation 77
4.1.3.2.3 Utilities 78
4.1.3.2.4 Mining 78
4.1.3.2.5 Oil & Gas 78
4.1.3.2.6 Healthcare 79
4.1.3.2.7 Education 79
4.1.3.2.8 Retail & Hospitality 80
4.1.3.2.9 Governments & Municipalities 80
4.1.3.2.10 Other Verticals 80
4.2 Applications 81
4.2.1 Mobile Broadband 81
4.2.2 Home & Business Broadband 81
4.2.3 Voice & Messaging Services 82
4.2.4 High-Definition Video Transmission 82
4.2.5 Telepresence & Video Conferencing 83
4.2.6 Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting 84
4.2.7 IoT (Internet of Things) Networking 84
4.2.8 Wireless Connectivity for Wearables 85
4.2.9 Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality) 86
4.2.10 Real-Time Holographic Projections 87
4.2.11 Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback 87
4.2.12 High-Precision Positioning & Tracking 88
4.2.13 Industrial Automation 88
4.2.14 Remote Control of Machines 89
4.2.15 Connected Mobile Robotics 90
4.2.16 Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles 91
4.2.17 BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones 92
4.2.18 Data-Driven Analytics & Insights 93
4.2.19 Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins 93
4.2.20 Predictive Maintenance of Equipment 94
5 Chapter 5: Unlicensed Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage 95
5.1 Candidate Frequency Bands for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 95
5.1.1 Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 – 700/800/900 MHz) 95
5.1.2 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band (1780 – 1785 MHz, 1875 – 1880 MHz) 95
5.1.3 1.9 GHz sXGP/DECT Band (1880 – 1920 MHz) 96
5.1.4 2.4 GHz (2400 – 2483.5 MHz) 96
5.1.5 3.5 GHz (3550 – 3700 MHz) CBRS Band 96
5.1.6 5 GHz (5150 – 5925 MHz) 97
5.1.7 6 GHz (5925 – 7125 MHz) 98
5.1.8 57 – 71 GHz 98
5.1.9 Other Bands 98
5.2 North America 99
5.2.1 United States 99
5.2.2 Canada 99
5.3 Asia Pacific 100
5.3.1 Australia 100
5.3.2 New Zealand 100
5.3.3 Japan 100
5.3.4 South Korea 101
5.3.5 China 101
5.3.6 Hong Kong 102
5.3.7 Taiwan 102
5.3.8 Singapore 102
5.3.9 Malaysia 102
5.3.10 Indonesia 103
5.3.11 Philippines 103
5.3.12 Thailand 103
5.3.13 Vietnam 103
5.3.14 Myanmar 104
5.3.15 India 104
5.3.16 Pakistan 104
5.3.17 Rest of Asia Pacific 104
5.4 Europe 105
5.4.1 United Kingdom 105
5.4.2 Ireland 105
5.4.3 France 105
5.4.4 Germany 105
5.4.5 Belgium 106
5.4.6 Netherlands 106
5.4.7 Switzerland 106
5.4.8 Austria 106
5.4.9 Italy 107
5.4.10 Spain 107
5.4.11 Portugal 107
5.4.12 Sweden 107
5.4.13 Norway 108
5.4.14 Denmark 108
5.4.15 Finland 108
5.4.16 Estonia 108
5.4.17 Czech Republic 108
5.4.18 Poland 109
5.4.19 Greece 109
5.4.20 Turkey 109
5.4.21 Bulgaria 109
5.4.22 Romania 110
5.4.23 Hungary 110
5.4.24 Slovenia 110
5.4.25 Serbia 110
5.4.26 Russia 110
5.4.27 Rest of Europe 111
5.5 Middle East & Africa 111
5.5.1 Saudi Arabia 111
5.5.2 United Arab Emirates 111
5.5.3 Qatar 111
5.5.4 Kuwait 112
5.5.5 Israel 112
5.5.6 South Africa 112
5.5.7 Rest of the Middle East & Africa 112
5.6 Latin & Central America 112
5.6.1 Mexico 112
5.6.2 Brazil 113
5.6.3 Argentina 113
5.6.4 Colombia 113
5.6.5 Chile 113
5.6.6 Rest of Latin & Central America 114
6 Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives 115
6.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 115
6.1.1 Releases 8-11: System-Level WLAN Offload 116
6.1.2 Release 12: RAN Assisted LTE-WLAN Interworking 116
6.1.3 Release 13: LAA, LWA, LWIP & RCLWI 116
6.1.4 Release 14: eLAA, eLWA, eLWIP & CBRS Band 48 Support 117
6.1.5 Release 15: Further Enhancements & LAA/eLAA (Band 49) for CBRS 117
6.1.6 Release 16: Anchored & Standalone 5G NR-U 118
6.1.7 Release 17 & Beyond: Future Evolution of 5G NR-U 119
6.2 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 119
6.2.1 IMSI Assignment & Management for CBRS 120
6.2.2 Additional CBRS-Related Efforts 120
6.3 CBRS Alliance 120
6.3.1 OnGo Certification Program for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 121
6.3.2 CBRS Network Services & Coexistence Specifications 121
6.3.2.1 Release 1: Baseline Specifications for LTE Systems in the 3.5 GHz Band 121
6.3.2.2 Release 2: Enhanced Specifications in Preparation for OnGo Commercial Service 122
6.3.2.3 Release 3: Incorporation of 3GPP’s 5G Definitions & Standards in the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 122
6.3.2.4 Release Independent Specifications for CBRS Identifiers 123
6.4 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) 123
6.4.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines & Technical Solutions for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 123
6.5 CTIA 124
6.5.1 Product Certification for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 124
6.6 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 124
6.6.1 Advocacy Efforts to Promote Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum 124
6.7 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 125
6.7.1 BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks) Technical Committee: Harmonized Standards for Wireless Access Systems 125
6.7.1.1 WSD (White Space Devices) Operating in the 470 – 790 MHz Band 125
6.7.1.2 5 GHz RLANs (Radio Local Area Networks) 126
6.7.1.3 6 GHz RLANs 126
6.7.1.4 60 GHz Multi-Gigabit Wireless Systems 126
6.7.1.5 Other Relevant Work 126
6.8 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 126
6.8.1 Standards & Protocols for Interworking Between 3GPP & Unlicensed Technologies 127
6.9 ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector) 127
6.9.1 International Regulation of Unlicensed Spectrum 127
6.10 LTE-U Forum 128
6.10.1 Technical Specifications for LTE-U in Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum 128
6.11 MulteFire Alliance 128
6.11.1 Specifications for LTE/5G NR Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 129
6.11.1.1 Release 1.0: LTE Operation in the Unlicensed 5 GHz Band 129
6.11.1.2 Release 1.1: Support for Industrial IoT & Sub-1/1.9/2.4 GHz Spectrum Bands 129
6.11.2 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines & Technical Solutions for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 129
6.12 NGMN Alliance 130
6.12.1 Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Activates 130
6.13 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) 130
6.13.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Support in the Aether 5G/LTE ECaaS (Edge-Cloud-as-a-Service) Platform 130
6.14 Small Cell Forum 131
6.14.1 Work Related to License-Exempt & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 131
6.15 WhiteSpace Alliance 131
6.15.1 Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum 131
6.16 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 132
6.16.1 SSC (Spectrum Sharing Committee): CBRS Standards 132
6.16.1.1 Release 1: CBRS Baseline Standards 132
6.16.1.2 Release 2: Enhancements to CBRS Baseline Standards 133
6.16.1.3 Administration of Root Certificate Authority, Professional Installer Training & CBSD Certification Programs 134
6.16.2 6MSC (6 GHz Multi-Stakeholder Planning Committee) 134
6.16.3 Other Committees 135
6.17 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum 135
6.17.1 Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed LTE Service 135
6.18 Others 135
6.18.1 National Government Agencies & Regulators 135
6.18.2 Vertical Industry Associations 136
6.18.3 Non-3GPP Technology Alliances 136
7 Chapter 7: Case Studies of Unlicensed Spectrum Deployments 137
7.1 AT&T: Tapping Unlicensed Spectrum for Mobile Network Densification & FWA 137
7.1.1 Spectrum Type 137
7.1.2 Integrators & Suppliers 137
7.1.3 Deployment Summary 137
7.2 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation): 1.9 GHz sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 140
7.2.1 Spectrum Type 140
7.2.2 Integrators & Suppliers 140
7.2.3 Deployment Summary 140
7.3 BYD SkyRail: Unlicensed 5 GHz Wireless System for Railway Communications 142
7.3.1 Spectrum Type 142
7.3.2 Integrators & Suppliers 142
7.3.3 Deployment Summary 142
7.4 Release 1: CBRS Baseline Standards 143
7.4.1 Release 2: Enhancements to CBRS Baseline Standards 143
7.4.2 Integrators & Suppliers 143
7.4.3 Deployment Summary 143
7.5 Dallas Love Field Airport: Private LTE Network for Internal Operations & Passenger Experience 144
7.5.1 Spectrum Type 144
7.5.2 Integrators & Suppliers 144
7.5.3 Deployment Summary 144
7.6 Gogo: Capitalizing on Unlicensed 2.4 GHz Spectrum for LTE/5G-Ready A2G (Air-to-Ground) Network 145
7.6.1 Spectrum Type 145
7.6.2 Integrators & Suppliers 145
7.6.3 Deployment Summary 145
7.7 Memorial Health System: LTE-Based CBRS Network to Support COVID-19 Response Efforts 147
7.7.1 Spectrum Type 147
7.7.2 Integrators & Suppliers 147
7.7.3 Deployment Summary 147
7.8 Midco (Midcontinent Communications): Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for Rural Broadband Connectivity 148
7.8.1 Spectrum Type 148
7.8.2 Integrators & Suppliers 148
7.8.3 Deployment Summary 148
7.9 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems): Delivering Gigabit-Grade LTE Services Using LAA Technology 149
7.9.1 Spectrum Type 149
7.9.2 Integrators & Suppliers 149
7.9.3 Deployment Summary 149
7.10 Murray City School District: LTE-Based Private CBRS Network for K-12 Education 150
7.10.1 Spectrum Type 150
7.10.2 Integrators & Suppliers 150
7.10.3 Deployment Summary 150
7.11 NetCity (GEOS Telecom): Unlicensed Sub-1 GHz LTE Network for AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) 151
7.11.1 Spectrum Type 151
7.11.2 Integrators & Suppliers 151
7.11.3 Deployment Summary 151
7.12 Ocado: Custom-Built LTE Network Over Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum for Warehouse Automation 153
7.12.1 Spectrum Type 153
7.12.2 Integrators & Suppliers 153
7.12.3 Deployment Summary 153
7.13 RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative): Building the Farm of the Future With CBRS Spectrum 155
7.13.1 Spectrum Type 155
7.13.2 Integrators & Suppliers 155
7.13.3 Deployment Summary 155
7.14 SmarTone: Effectively Managing Traffic Surges With Strategically Located LAA Small Cells 156
7.14.1 Spectrum Type 156
7.14.2 Integrators & Suppliers 156
7.14.3 Deployment Summary 156
7.15 URSYS: Bringing Cellular Connectivity to Rural Areas and Outlying Regions With Unlicensed Spectrum 157
7.15.1 Spectrum Type 157
7.15.2 Integrators & Suppliers 157
7.15.3 Deployment Summary 157
7.16 Verizon Communications: Exploiting 5 GHz & 3.5 GHz CBRS Spectrum to Address Capacity Demands 158
7.16.1 Spectrum Type 158
7.16.2 Integrators & Suppliers 158
7.16.3 Deployment Summary 158
7.17 Vodacom Group: Employing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum To Improve LTE Network Capacity & Performance 161
7.17.1 Spectrum Type 161
7.17.2 Integrators & Suppliers 161
7.17.3 Deployment Summary 161
7.18 Yangshan Port: Unlicensed 5 GHz LTE Network for Automated Container Terminal Operations 162
7.18.1 Spectrum Type 162
7.18.2 Integrators & Suppliers 162
7.18.3 Deployment Summary 162
8 Chapter 8: Market Sizing & Forecasts 164
8.1 Global Outlook for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 164
8.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 165
8.2.1 Unlicensed LTE 166
8.2.2 5G NR-U 167
8.3 Segmentation by Mode of Operation 168
8.3.1 Standalone 169
8.3.2 LAA 170
8.4 Segmentation by Cell Type 171
8.4.1 Indoor Small Cells 172
8.4.2 Outdoor Small Cells 173
8.5 Segmentation by Frequency Band 174
8.5.1 Sub-1 GHz 175
8.5.2 1.9 GHz sXGP 176
8.5.3 2.4 GHz 177
8.5.4 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA 178
8.5.5 5 GHz 179
8.5.6 6 GHz 180
8.5.7 Higher Frequencies 181
8.6 Segmentation by Use Case 182
8.6.1 Mobile Network Densification 183
8.6.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 184
8.6.3 Cable Operators & New Entrants 185
8.6.4 Neutral Hosts 186
8.6.5 Private Cellular Networks 187
8.6.5.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 188
8.6.5.2 Vertical Industries 189
8.7 Regional Outlook 190
8.7.1 North America 191
8.7.2 Asia Pacific 192
8.7.3 Europe 193
8.7.4 Middle East & Africa 194
8.7.5 Latin & Central America 195
9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players 196
9.1 6Harmonics/6WiLInk 196
9.2 ABiT Corporation 197
9.3 Accelleran 198
9.4 Accuver (InnoWireless) 199
9.5 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 200
9.6 Affirmed Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 201
9.7 Airgain 202
9.8 Airspan Networks 203
9.9 Airtower Networks 205
9.10 Airwavz Solutions 206
9.11 Akoustis Technologies 207
9.12 Alef Edge 208
9.13 Allen Vanguard Wireless 209
9.14 Alpha Wireless 210
9.15 Altiostar Networks 211
9.16 Altran 212
9.17 Amazon 214
9.18 Amdocs 216
9.19 American Tower Corporation 218
9.20 Amit Wireless 219
9.21 Anritsu Corporation 220
9.22 ANS (Advanced Network Services) 221
9.23 Antenna Company 222
9.24 Anterix 223
9.25 Apple 224
9.26 Artemis Networks (Rearden) 225
9.27 ASOCS 226
9.28 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 227
9.29 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)/Askey Computer Corporation 229
9.30 Athonet 230
9.31 ATN International 231
9.32 AttoCore 232
9.33 Axell Wireless 233
9.34 Azcom Technology 234
9.35 BAI Communications/Transit Wireless 235
9.36 Baicells Technologies 236
9.37 Ballast Networks 237
9.38 BearCom 238
9.39 BEC Technologies 239
9.40 Benetel 240
9.41 Billion Electric 241
9.42 Black Box Corporation 242
9.43 Blackned 243
9.44 Blue Arcus Technologies 244
9.45 Blue Danube Systems 245
9.46 Boingo Wireless 246
9.47 Branch Communications 247
9.48 BTI Wireless 248
9.49 Bureau Veritas/7Layers 249
9.50 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems) 250
9.51 CableFree (Wireless Excellence) 251
9.52 CableLabs/Kyrio 252
9.53 Cambium Networks 253
9.54 Cambridge Consultants 254
9.55 Carlson Wireless Technologies 255
9.56 Casa Systems 256
9.57 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)/BLiNQ Networks 258
9.58 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks) 259
9.59 CellAntenna Corporation 260
9.60 cellXica 261
9.61 Celona 262
9.62 Centerline Communications 263
9.63 CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group 264
9.64 Cisco Systems 266
9.65 ClearSky Technologies 268
9.66 Codium Networks 269
9.67 Comba Telecom 270
9.68 CommAgility (Wireless Telecom Group) 272
9.69 CommScope/Ruckus Networks 273
9.70 Compal 275
9.71 COMSovereign 276
9.72 Connectivity Wireless Solutions (M/C Partners) 277
9.73 Contela 278
9.74 Corning 279
9.75 Council Rock 281
9.76 Cradlepoint (Ericsson) 282
9.77 Crown Castle International Corporation 283
9.78 CTS (Communication Technology Services) 284
9.79 Dali Wireless 285
9.80 Dejero Labs 286
9.81 DEKRA 287
9.82 Dell Technologies 288
9.83 Digi International 289
9.84 Digicert 290
9.85 DKK (Denki Kogyo) 291
9.86 Druid Software 292
9.87 EION Wireless 293
9.88 Encore Networks 294
9.89 Ericsson 295
9.90 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) 297
9.91 EXFO 298
9.92 ExteNet Systems (Digital Colony) 299
9.93 Facebook 300
9.94 Fairspectrum 303
9.95 FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)/JEMS (Japan EM Solutions) 304
9.96 Federated Wireless 305
9.97 Fibrolan 307
9.98 FreedomFi 308
9.99 FRTek 309
9.100 Fujitsu 310
9.101 Future Technologies Venture 312
9.102 GCT Semiconductor 313
9.103 GE (General Electric) 314
9.104 Gemtek Technology 315
9.105 Geoverse (ATN International) 316
9.106 Getac Technology Corporation 317
9.107 Goodman Networks 318
9.108 Google (Alphabet) 319
9.109 Granite Telecommunications 321
9.110 Green Packet 322
9.111 HCL Technologies 323
9.112 HFR 324
9.113 Hitachi Kokusai Electric 325
9.114 Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group) 326
9.115 HP 327
9.116 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) 328
9.117 Huawei 330
9.118 Huber+Suhner 332
9.119 iBwave Solutions (Corning) 333
9.120 Infomark Corporation 334
9.121 Infosys 335
9.122 Infovista 336
9.123 Innonet 337
9.124 Inseego Corporation 338
9.125 Insta Group 339
9.126 Intel Corporation 340
9.127 Intenna Systems 342
9.128 InterDigital 343
9.129 IoT4Net 344
9.130 ip.access (Mavenir Systems) 345
9.131 IPLOOK Networks 347
9.132 iPosi 348
9.133 Jaton Technology 349
9.134 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)/Contour Networks 350
9.135 JIT (JI Technology) 351
9.136 JMA Wireless 352
9.137 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 353
9.138 Juni Global 355
9.139 Kajeet 356
9.140 Key Bridge Wireless 357
9.141 Keysight Technologies 358
9.142 Kisan Telecom 360
9.143 KLA Laboratories 361
9.144 Kleos 362
9.145 KMW 363
9.146 KORE Wireless 364
9.147 Kyocera Corporation 365
9.148 Landmark Dividend 366
9.149 Lekha Wireless Solutions 367
9.150 Lemko Corporation 368
9.151 Lenovo/Motorola Mobility 369
9.152 LG Electronics 371
9.153 Lime Microsystems 372
9.154 Lindsay Broadband 373
9.155 Linx Technologies 374
9.156 LS telcom 375
9.157 Maven Wireless 376
9.158 Mavenir Systems 377
9.159 Metaswitch Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 379
9.160 Metro Network Services 380
9.161 MiCOM Labs 381
9.162 Microlab 382
9.163 Microsoft Corporation 383
9.164 MitraStar Technology (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 385
9.165 Mobile Mark 386
9.166 Mobilitie 387
9.167 Motorola Solutions 388
9.168 MRT Technology (Suzhou) 390
9.169 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates) 391
9.170 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.) 392
9.171 MTI Wireless Edge 393
9.172 Multi-Tech Systems 394
9.173 NEC Corporation 395
9.174 Nemko 397
9.175 Netgear 398
9.176 NetNumber 399
9.177 Netvision Telecom 400
9.178 NewEdge Signal Solutions 401
9.179 Nextivity 402
9.180 Node-H 403
9.181 Nokia 404
9.182 Nominet 406
9.183 Nsight Telservices 407
9.184 NuRAN Wireless/Nutaq Innovation 408
9.185 Oceus Networks 409
9.186 Octasic 411
9.187 OPPO/Vivo/OnePlus/Realme (BBK Electronics Corporation) 412
9.188 Oracle Communications 413
9.189 Panasonic Corporation 414
9.190 Panorama Antennas 415
9.191 Parallel Wireless 416
9.192 Parsec Technologies 417
9.193 Pavlov Media 418
9.194 PCTEL 419
9.195 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory) 420
9.196 Pierson Wireless 421
9.197 Pivot Technology Services 422
9.198 Pivotal Commware 423
9.199 Polaris Networks 424
9.200 Potevio 425
9.201 QuadGen Wireless Solutions 426
9.202 Qualcomm 427
9.203 Quantum Wireless 429
9.204 Qucell (InnoWireless) 430
9.205 Quectel Wireless Solutions 431
9.206 Qulsar 432
9.207 Quortus 433
9.208 Radisys Corporation (Reliance Industries) 435
9.209 Ranplan Wireless 437
9.210 Raycap 438
9.211 RED Technologies 439
9.212 Redline Communications 440
9.213 RF Connect 441
9.214 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 442
9.215 Rivada Networks 443
9.216 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited) 444
9.217 Rohde & Schwarz 445
9.218 RuggON Corporation 446
9.219 Saankhya Labs 447
9.220 SAC Wireless (Nokia) 448
9.221 Samsung 449
9.222 Sanjole 451
9.223 SBA Communications Corporation 452
9.224 Select Spectrum 453
9.225 Seowon Intech 454
9.226 Sequans Communications 455
9.227 Sercomm Corporation 456
9.228 SGS 457
9.229 Shanghai Smawave Technology 458
9.230 Sharp Corporation/Dynabook (Foxconn) 459
9.231 Siemens 460
9.232 Sierra Wireless 461
9.233 Sivers IMA 462
9.234 Smart City Networks 463
9.235 SOLiD 464
9.236 Sony Corporation 465
9.237 Spectrum Effect 467
9.238 Spirent Communications 468
9.239 Sporton International 470
9.240 SQUAN 471
9.241 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company) 472
9.242 Star Solutions 473
9.243 STEP CG 475
9.244 STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd) 476
9.245 Sunwave Communications 477
9.246 SureSite Consulting Group 478
9.247 Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless) 479
9.248 Syniverse Technologies 480
9.249 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics) 481
9.250 Tait Communications 482
9.251 Tango Networks 483
9.252 Taoglas 484
9.253 Teal Communications 485
9.254 Tecore Networks 486
9.255 Telewave 487
9.256 Teleworld Solutions 488
9.257 Telit Communications 489
9.258 Telrad Networks 490
9.259 Telsasoft 491
9.260 Tessares 492
9.261 TESSCO Technologies 493
9.262 ThinkRF 494
9.263 Tilson 495
9.264 TLC Solutions 496
9.265 TÜV SÜD 497
9.266 Ubicquia 498
9.267 UL 499
9.268 Valid8 500
9.269 Vapor IO 501
9.270 Vertical Bridge (Digital Colony) 502
9.271 Verveba Telecom 503
9.272 Viavi Solutions 504
9.273 Virtual Network Communications (COMSovereign) 506
9.274 Wave Wireless 507
9.275 Wavesight 508
9.276 Westell Technologies 509
9.277 Widelity 510
9.278 Wilson Electronics 511
9.279 Wilus 512
9.280 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks) 513
9.281 Winncom Technologies 514
9.282 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 515
9.283 Wytec International 517
9.284 Zebra Technologies 518
9.285 ZenFi Networks 519
9.286 Zinwave (McWane) 520
9.287 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology) 521
9.288 ZTE 522
9.289 Zyxel Communications (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 524
10 Chapter 10: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations 525
10.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? 525
10.2 Future Roadmap: 2020 – 2030 525
10.2.1 2020 – 2024: Steady Growth of 5 GHz LAA, 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA & 1.9 GHz sXGP Deployments 526
10.2.2 2025 – 2029: Commercial Maturity of 5G NR-U for Industrial IoT Requirements 527
10.2.3 2030 & Beyond: Mass-Market Adoption of Unlicensed Cellular Networks 527
10.3 Which Unlicensed Frequency Bands Will Dominate the Market? 528
10.4 Leveraging 6 GHz Greenfield Spectrum for 5G NR-U Deployments 529
10.5 Outlook for 60 GHz & Higher Frequencies 529
10.6 Is Wi-Fi 6 a Threat to 5G NR-U? 530
10.7 Densification of Mobile Operator Networks in the 5G Era 530
10.8 The Emergence of New Entrants in the Cellular Industry 531
10.9 Private Cellular Networks for Industrial IoT 531
10.10 COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact on Unlicensed Spectrum Deployments 531
10.11 Strategic Recommendations 532
10.11.1 LTE/5G Equipment Suppliers & System Integrators 532
10.11.2 Mobile Operators, Neutral Hosts & Other Service Providers 533
10.11.3 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 533
List of Figures
Figure 1: The Value Chain of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 41
Figure 2: Anchored & Standalone NR-U 55
Figure 3: CBRS Tiers of Authorization 62
Figure 4: MPTCP (Multipath TCP) Proxy-Based Aggregation 68
Figure 5: 3.5 GHz CBRS Three-Tiered Shared Spectrum in the United States 97
Figure 6: Unlicensed Spectrum Technology Standardization in 3GPP Releases 8 – 17 118
Figure 7: WInnForum’s CBRS Standards 133
Figure 8: IoT Services Over BBB’s sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 141
Figure 9: Licensed & Unlicensed Spectrum Use in Gogo’s ATG (Air-to-Ground) Network 146
Figure 10: Ocado’s 4G-Based Wireless Control System for Warehouse Automation 154
Figure 11: Verizon’s Spectrum Portfolio 159
Figure 12: Yangshan Port’s Unlicensed 5.8 GHz LTE Network 163
Figure 13: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 164
Figure 14: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 164
Figure 15: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 165
Figure 16: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 165
Figure 17: Unlicensed LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 166
Figure 18: Unlicensed LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 166
Figure 19: 5G NR-U Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 167
Figure 20: 5G NR-U Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 167
Figure 21: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Mode of Operation: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 168
Figure 22: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Mode of Operation: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 168
Figure 23: Standalone Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 169
Figure 24: Standalone Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 169
Figure 25: LAA Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 170
Figure 26: LAA Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 170
Figure 27: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 171
Figure 28: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Type: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 171
Figure 29: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 172
Figure 30: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 172
Figure 31: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 173
Figure 32: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 173
Figure 33: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 174
Figure 34: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 174
Figure 35: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 175
Figure 36: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 175
Figure 37: 1.9 GHz sXGP Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 176
Figure 38: 1.9 GHz sXGP Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 176
Figure 39: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 177
Figure 40: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 177
Figure 41: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 178
Figure 42: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 178
Figure 43: 5 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 179
Figure 44: 5 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 179
Figure 45: 6 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 180
Figure 46: 6 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 180
Figure 47: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 181
Figure 48: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 181
Figure 49: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Use Case: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 182
Figure 50: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Use Case: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 182
Figure 51: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Mobile Network Densification: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 183
Figure 52: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Mobile Network Densification: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 183
Figure 53: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for FWA: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 184
Figure 54: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for FWA: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 184
Figure 55: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 185
Figure 56: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 185
Figure 57: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Neutral Hosts: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 186
Figure 58: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Neutral Hosts: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 186
Figure 59: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Private Cellular Networks: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 187
Figure 60: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Private Cellular Networks: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 187
Figure 61: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 188
Figure 62: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 188
Figure 63: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Vertical Industries: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 189
Figure 64: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Vertical Industries: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 189
Figure 65: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 190
Figure 66: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 190
Figure 67: North America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 191
Figure 68: North America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 191
Figure 69: Asia Pacific Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 192
Figure 70: Asia Pacific Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 192
Figure 71: Europe Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 193
Figure 72: Europe Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 193
Figure 73: Middle East & Africa Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 194
Figure 74: Middle East & Africa Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 194
Figure 75: Latin & Central America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 195
Figure 76: Latin & Central America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 195
Figure 77: Future Roadmap for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 526
Figure 78: Distribution of Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Shipments by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2023 (%) 528

Company Mentioned

List of Companies Mentioned
3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)
6Harmonics/6WiLInk
7Layers
Aaeon Technology
ABiT Corporation
Accelleran
Accuver
ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)
ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
Affirmed Networks
Airgain
Airspan Networks
Airtower Networks
Airwavz Solutions
Akoustis Technologies
Alef Edge
Allen Vanguard Wireless
Alliance of Industrial Internet
Alpha Wireless
Alphabet
Altiostar Networks
Altran
Amazon
Amdocs
American Tower Corporation
Amit Wireless
ANACOM (National Communications Authority, Portugal)
Anritsu Corporation
ANS (Advanced Network Services)
Antenna Company
Anterix
Apple
ARCEP (Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques)
ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
Artemis Networks
Askey Computer Corporation
ASOCS
ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)
AT&T
Athonet
ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
ATN International
AttoCore
Axell Wireless
Azcom Technology
BAI Communications
Baicells Technologies
Ballast Networks
BBB (BB Backbone Corporation)
BBK Electronics Corporation
BearCom
BEC Technologies
Benetel
Billion Electric
Black Box Corporation
Blackned
BLiNQ Networks
Blue Arcus Technologies
Blue Danube Systems
BNetzA (Federal Network Agency, Germany)
Boingo Wireless
Branch Communications
BTI Wireless
Bureau Veritas
BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems)
BYD
CableFree (Wireless Excellence)
CableLabs
Caltta
Cambium Networks
Cambridge Consultants
Carlson Wireless Technologies
Casa Systems
CBRS Alliance
CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)
CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
CellAntenna Corporation
cellXica
Celona
Centerline Communications
CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
China Mobile
Chunghwa Telecom
CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group
Cisco Systems
CITC (Communications and Information Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia)
CITRA (Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority, Kuwait)
ClearSky Technologies
Codium Networks
Comba Telecom
CommAgility
CommScope
Compal
COMSovereign
Connectivity Wireless Solutions
Contela
Contour Networks
Corning
Council Rock
Cradlepoint
Crown Castle International Corporation
CTIA
CTS (Communication Technology Services)
CTU (Czech Telecommunication Office)
Dali Wireless
Dallas Love Field Airport
Danish Energy Agency
Dejero Labs
DEKRA
Dell Technologies
Digi International
Digicert
Digital Colony
DKK (Denki Kogyo)
Druid Software
DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
Dynabook
EETT (Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission)
EION Wireless
ENACOM (Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones)
Encore Networks
Ericsson
ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
EXFO
ExteNet Systems
Facebook
Fairspectrum
FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)
Federated Wireless
Fibrolan
FreedomFi
FRTek
Fujitsu
Future Technologies Venture
GCT Semiconductor
GE (General Electric)
Gemtek Technology
Geoverse
Getac Technology Corporation
Gogo
Goodman Networks
Google
Granite Telecommunications
Green Packet
HCL Technologies
HFR
Hitachi Kokusai Electric
Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group)
HP
HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise)
HTNG (Hospitality Technology Next Generation)
Huawei
Huber+Suhner
iBwave Solutions
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium)
IMDA (Info-communications Media Development Authority of Singapore)
Infomark Corporation
Infosys
Infovista
Innonet
InnoWireless
Inseego Corporation
Insta Group
Intel Corporation
Intenna Systems
InterDigital
IoT4Net
ip.access
IPLOOK Networks
iPosi
ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector)
Jaton Technology
JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)
JEMS (Japan EM Solutions)
JIT (JI Technology)
JMA Wireless
JRC (Japan Radio Company)
Juni Global
Kajeet
Kementerian Kominfo (Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Indonesia)
Key Bridge Wireless
Keysight Technologies
Kisan Telecom
KLA Laboratories
Kleos
KMW
KORE Wireless
Kyocera Corporation
Kyrio
Landmark Dividend
Lekha Wireless Solutions
Lemko Corporation
Lenovo
LG Electronics
Lime Microsystems
Lindsay Broadband
Linx Technologies
LS telcom
LTE-U Forum
M/C Partners
Maven Wireless
Mavenir Systems
MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission)
McWane
Memorial Health System
Metaswitch Networks
Metro Network Services
MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan)
MiCOM Labs
Microlab
Microsoft Corporation
Midco (Midcontinent Communications)
MitraStar Technology
Mobile Mark
Mobilitie
Motorola Mobility
Motorola Solutions
MRT Technology (Suzhou)
MSB (M S Benbow & Associates)
MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea)
MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.)
MTI Wireless Edge
MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
MulteFire Alliance
Multi-Tech Systems
Murray City School District
NBTC (National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission, Thailand)
NEC Corporation
Nemko
NetCity (GEOS Telecom/GEOS Holding)
Netgear
NetNumber
Netvision Telecom
NewEdge Signal Solutions
Nextivity
NGMN Alliance
Node-H
Nokia
Nominet
Nsight Telservices
NTC (National Telecommunications Commission, Philippines)
NuRAN Wireless
Nutaq Innovation
Ocado
Oceus Networks
Octasic
Ofcom (Office of Communications, United Kingdom)
OnePlus
ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
OPPO
Oracle Communications
Panasonic Corporation
Panorama Antennas
Parallel Wireless
Parsec Technologies
Pavlov Media
PCTEL
PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory)
Pierson Wireless
Pivot Technology Services
Pivotal Commware
Polaris Networks
Potevio
PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority)
QuadGen Wireless Solutions
Qualcomm
Quantum Wireless
Qucell
Quectel Wireless Solutions
Qulsar
Quortus
Radisys Corporation
Ranplan Wireless
RATEL (Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services, Serbia)
Raycap
RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative)
Realme
Rearden
RED Technologies
Redline Communications
Reliance Industries
RF Connect
RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
Rivada Networks
RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited)
Rohde & Schwarz
Ruckus Networks
RuggON Corporation
Saankhya Labs
SAC Wireless
Samsung
Sanjole
SBA Communications Corporation
Select Spectrum
Seowon Intech
Sequans Communications
Sercomm Corporation
SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China)
SGS
Shanghai Smawave Technology
Sharp Corporation
Siemens
Sierra Wireless
SIPG (Shanghai International Port Group)
Sivers IMA
Small Cell Forum
Smart City Networks
SmarTone
SoftBank Group
SOLiD
Sony Corporation
Sony Mobile Communications
Spectrum Effect
Spirent Communications
Sporton International
SQUAN
SSC (Shared Spectrum Company)
Star Solutions
STEP CG
STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd)
Subtel (Subsecretaría de Telecomunicaciones de Chile)
Sunwave Communications
SureSite Consulting Group
Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless)
Syniverse Technologies
T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics)
Tait Communications
Tango Networks
Taoglas
Teal Communications
Tecore Networks
Telewave
Teleworld Solutions
Telit Communications
Telrad Networks
Telsasoft
Tessares
TESSCO Technologies
ThinkRF
Tilson
TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
TLC Solutions
TRA (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, United Arab Emirates)
Traficom (Transport and Communications Agency, Finland)
Transit Wireless
Trilogy Networks
TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India)
TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
TÜV SÜD
U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
Ubicquia
UKE (Office of Electronic Communications, Poland)
UL
Unizyx Holding Corporation
URSYS
Valid8
Vapor IO
Ventev
Verizon Communications
Vertical Bridge
Verveba Telecom
Viavi Solutions
Virtual Network Communications
Vivo
Vodacom Group
Wave Wireless
Wavesight
WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
Westell Technologies
WhiteSpace Alliance
Widelity
Wi-Fi Alliance
Wilson Electronics
Wilus
WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks)
Winncom Technologies
WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
Wireless Telecom Group
WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
Wytec International
XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum
Yangshan Port
Zebra Technologies
ZenFi Networks
Zinwave
Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology)
ZTE
Zyxel Communications